host = $host; $this->dbUser = $dbUser; $this->dbPass = $dbPass; $this->dbName = $dbName; $this->connectToDb(); } /** * Establishes connection to MySQL and selects a database * @return void * @access private */ function connectToDb() { // Make connection to MySQL server if (!$this->dbConn = @mysql_connect($this->host, $this->dbUser, $this->dbPass)) { trigger_error('Could not connect to server'); $this->connectError = true; // Select database } else if (!@mysql_select_db($this->dbName,$this->dbConn)) { trigger_error('Could not select database'); $this->connectError = true; } } /** * Checks for MySQL errors * @return boolean * @access public */ function isError() { if ($this->connectError) { return true; } $error = mysql_error($this->dbConn); if (empty($error)) { return false; } else { return true; } } /** * Returns an instance of MySQLResult to fetch rows with * @param $sql string the database query to run * @return MySQLResult * @access public */ function &query($sql) { if (!$queryResource = mysql_query($sql, $this->dbConn)) { trigger_error('Query failed: ' . mysql_error($this->dbConn) . ' SQL: ' . $sql); } else { return new MySQLResult($this, $queryResource); } } } /** * MySQLResult Data Fetching Class * @access public * @package SPLIB */ class MySQLResult { /** * Instance of MySQL providing database connection * @access private * @var MySQL */ var $mysql; /** * Query resource * @access private * @var resource */ var $query; /** * MySQLResult constructor * @param object mysql (instance of MySQL class) * @param resource query (MySQL query resource) * @access public */ function MySQLResult(&$mysql, $query) { $this->mysql = &$mysql; $this->query = $query; } /** * Fetches a row from the result * @return array * @access public */ function fetch() { if ($row = mysql_fetch_array($this->query, MYSQL_ASSOC)) { return $row; } else if ( $this->size() > 0 ) { mysql_data_seek($this->query, 0); return false; } else { return false; } } /** * Returns the number of rows selected * @return int * @access public */ function size () { return mysql_num_rows($this->query); } /** * Returns the ID of the last row inserted * @return int * @access public */ function insertID () { return mysql_insert_id($this->mysql->dbConn); } /** * Checks for MySQL errors * @return boolean * @access public */ function isError() { return $this->mysql->isError(); } /** * Returns an instance of MySQLResult to fetch rows with * @param $sql string the database query to run * @return MySQLResult * @access public */ } ?> Snuff Bottle with Stopper and Spoon - Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery Information Centre
             
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Snuff Bottle with Stopper and Spoon

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Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery

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Basic Information

Accession Number:1927M180
Collection:Applied Art - Asian
Date:1780 - 1800

Notes

Tobacco was introduced into China from Europe in the late 16th century and was smoked in a pipe. The use of snuff, tobacco that has been ground to a fine powder and scented with essential oils, came later after the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644. At that time, smoking tobacco was forbidden but the use of snuff, which was sniffed, rather than smoked, was acceptable. This was because the Chinese valued snuff for its medicinal qualities. It was considered as an effective remedy for colds, headaches, and many other illnesses. The powdered tobacco was dispensed in a bottle, as were most other medicines in China.This example is a glass, ivory and wooden snuff bottle with a domed stopper, a straight neck flaring to ovoid flat body, and a foot ring. It is made of 'Pekin' glass, which imitates stone, in this case, aventurine. The bottle is yellow-brown with gold metallic flecks and streaks. The green stopper is set into a brass mount and the spoon is set onto the stopper.

Presented in memory of Sir Whitworth Wallis, the first Director of the Museum, 1927.

Further Information

Production Period:18th Century
Medium:'Pekin' glass with wood, ivory and brass.
Material(s):Brass
Place of Origin:China

Dimensions

Height:7.7 cm