host = $host; $this->dbUser = $dbUser; $this->dbPass = $dbPass; $this->dbName = $dbName; $this->connectToDb(); } /** * Establishes connection to MySQL and selects a database * @return void * @access private */ function connectToDb() { // Make connection to MySQL server if (!$this->dbConn = @mysql_connect($this->host, $this->dbUser, $this->dbPass)) { trigger_error('Could not connect to server'); $this->connectError = true; // Select database } else if (!@mysql_select_db($this->dbName,$this->dbConn)) { trigger_error('Could not select database'); $this->connectError = true; } } /** * Checks for MySQL errors * @return boolean * @access public */ function isError() { if ($this->connectError) { return true; } $error = mysql_error($this->dbConn); if (empty($error)) { return false; } else { return true; } } /** * Returns an instance of MySQLResult to fetch rows with * @param $sql string the database query to run * @return MySQLResult * @access public */ function &query($sql) { if (!$queryResource = mysql_query($sql, $this->dbConn)) { trigger_error('Query failed: ' . mysql_error($this->dbConn) . ' SQL: ' . $sql); } else { return new MySQLResult($this, $queryResource); } } } /** * MySQLResult Data Fetching Class * @access public * @package SPLIB */ class MySQLResult { /** * Instance of MySQL providing database connection * @access private * @var MySQL */ var $mysql; /** * Query resource * @access private * @var resource */ var $query; /** * MySQLResult constructor * @param object mysql (instance of MySQL class) * @param resource query (MySQL query resource) * @access public */ function MySQLResult(&$mysql, $query) { $this->mysql = &$mysql; $this->query = $query; } /** * Fetches a row from the result * @return array * @access public */ function fetch() { if ($row = mysql_fetch_array($this->query, MYSQL_ASSOC)) { return $row; } else if ( $this->size() > 0 ) { mysql_data_seek($this->query, 0); return false; } else { return false; } } /** * Returns the number of rows selected * @return int * @access public */ function size () { return mysql_num_rows($this->query); } /** * Returns the ID of the last row inserted * @return int * @access public */ function insertID () { return mysql_insert_id($this->mysql->dbConn); } /** * Checks for MySQL errors * @return boolean * @access public */ function isError() { return $this->mysql->isError(); } /** * Returns an instance of MySQLResult to fetch rows with * @param $sql string the database query to run * @return MySQLResult * @access public */ } ?> Headdress wuqa/wuqayeh - Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery Information Centre
             
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Headdress wuqa/wuqayeh

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Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery.

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Basic Information

Accession Number:1986M112.155
Collection:Applied Art - Costume
Date:1850 - 1920

Notes

The Southall Collection is a major collection of Palestinian Dress dating from 1900-1930. It includes garments and accessories worn by nomadic Bedouin people as well as men, women and children living in Ramallah and Bethlehem.

This is probably a girl's head-dress, also known as wuqa or wuqayeh. It would have been placed flat on the head and tied under the chin as a bonnet by gathering the material at the back around the hair and fastening with hair bands. The piece of red linen has been trimmed with beads and metal amulets. The hand shaped amulets are commonly known as the 'hand of Fatimah', after the daughter of the Prophet Mohammed, these along with the blue and green beads are thought to protect the wearer from the 'evil eye'. Both the words 'wuqa' and 'wuqayeh' are derived from the classical Arabic word 'waqia', meaning protection.

Presented as part of the Southall Collection, 1985.

Further Information

Production Period:19th/20th Century
School/Style:Palestinian
Medium:Rust red linen. Glass beads, metal thread, embroidery in yellow, orange, dark red, green and blue including cross stitch.
Material(s):Linen
Place of Origin:Palestine

Dimensions

Height:24.5 cm
Width:24 cm